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Project Summary Project Description Application of Tools Opinion of Tools Decision making process Contact Details

Decision making process

Name der Fallstudie
Awel Aman Tawe Community Energy Project.

Decision making process - stages
The Awel Aman Tawe project was designed in five phases. The five phases were "..planned to ensure that the social components integrate appropriately with the environmental, financial and technical factors. This ensures that the project is tailored to the needs of local people". Hinshelwood & McCallum (2001b)

The decision making stages are outlined in the originally proposed timetable is below:

Decision making stages for the development of the wind farm
Decision making stages for the development of the wind farm Hinshelwood & McCallum (2001b).

Decision making process - levels
See stages of decision making process (above).

Decision making process - sources of information
Information regarding the wind farm was provided throughout the consultation stage by AAT who had spent time researching wind farms in the UK.

Decision making process - who are the decision makers
The decision making for the project took place at the community/public level.

Decision making process - who made the final decision for project implementation
The technical decision was at the planning consent stage.

Name of tool
For the Awel Aman Tawe Project as a whole:
Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA)

Decision making process - tools in decision-making process
The tool was implemented by Emily Hinshelwood, an independent consultant working on behalf of AAT, who is experienced with the SLA. The concepts of the tool were implemented from the initial stages of the project, however this tool can be used at any stage of a project. Using the tool does not drive a project but in AAT it changed the projects focus from solely developing a wind farm, to looking at the community processes involved in the development. This meant that the development of the wind farm became second to the issues of local peoples livelihoods and community change. With the shift in approach, came a shift in questions being asked about the wind farm. The traditional questions would be "what stages do we need to go through to establish an efficient profit-making wind farm?" which with the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach became "How can the different stages of developing an efficient, profit-making wind farm support community regeneration?" (Hinshelwood, 2003). The tool seeks to obtain a better understanding of people’s livelihoods and to improve them. The tool was not used to support arguments locally, but it was used to convince donors to support the project.

Name of tool
For the wind farm proposal:
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Decision making process - tools in decision-making process
Despite the original timetable when the EIA was supposed to have been completed in Phase 2, the EIA was not implemented until after the consultation phase was over. Dulas, a renewable energy consultant, oversaw the EIA and subcontracted specialist consultants. The tool output influenced the process by providing clear legislation that guides the development of the EIA. For example, the EIA identified 114 sites of archaeological interest which enabled sites remote from these locations to be selected or for mitigating measures to minimise impact. The EIA also identified areas previously mined and quarried which could be avoided. EIA is a standard process with defined procedure – ie specific numbers of visits by ecologists to assess birds etc.. The EIA identified that an experienced environmental liaison officer should be employed to aid collaboration between contractors, the community and other local groups. This role would ensure that commitments within the environmental statement would be ensured. For example, transformers for the turbines should be contained within the turbines to prevent additional features on the landscape and to increase safety and security and that stone for building will be sourced on site from local quarries and pits. The Council made it clear that EIA would have to be as thorough as a commercial wind farm application. Information collected during the EIA has been used to support the project in discussions with donors and the council.

Name of tool
For the wind farm proposal:
Participatory Assessment Process (PAP)

Decision making process - tools in decision-making process
Although the idea to investigate the possibility of a community wind farm occurred in 1998, the PAP didn?t begin until April 2000, which was at the beginning of the Awel Aman Tawe project, but after a period of research into the wind industry in the UK. It was implemented by members of Awel Aman Tawe. Over the time of the consultation period, opinions changes to favour the development. There were a number of people who opposed the development throughout the consultation process. An opposition group formed at the beginning of the project and campaigned against the development. Hinshelwood E and McCallum D (2001b) believe that although the consultation process did not persuade some people to favour of the development, it also cannot be assumed that this campaign group changed opinions, but that the local context and past experiences were actually the determining factors in many residents opposition.

However, Hinshelwood and McCallum (2001b) believe that the tool did add value "by identifying the criteria important to people, Awel Aman Tawe was able to address key concerns and feel local ideas into the scheme thereby tailoring the project to local needs".

The Consultation process had series of quantitative benchmarks defined such as the number of public meetings held. Main marker was the referendum and the publication of the two reports by DTI on consultation.

As discussed above, an opposition group formed within one of the villages close to the proposed wind farm site. This tool was used to support the case of Awel Aman Tawe through the provision of media and discussion on the proposed wind farm.

Decision making process - how was the information for the dmp disseminated
Information was disseminated directly to the public by a large variety of methods through the comprehensive Participatory Assessment Method.

Stage 1
? press coverage;
? an audit of 60 community special interest groups in the area who were identified, contacted and entered into a database
? structured interviews of a random sample was identified using the electoral registers within the three local authorities, 259 questionnaires were completed throughout the area, and results were analysed to provide baseline data for peoples opinions of wind farms which informed the consultation.

Stage 2
? bi-lingual leaflets were delivered to 6,732 households in the surrounding 14 villages;
? additional leaflets were delivered to households when notification of public meetings and open days was required;
? leaflet packs were left in 80 shops and community spaces;
? 10 permanent displays were put in public spaces, libraries, community centres, adult education centres, clubs and schools;
? a mobile display was used at 11 non?AAT events;
? a display was developed showing panoramic views from the proposed site and detailing locations with distances;
? a bi-lingual video was produced and shown at presentations, showing views from the proposed site;
? S4C digidol (a Welsh TV channel) produced a documentary on AAT;
? a bi-lingual website was developed;
? Information sheets were produced;
? 3 photomontages were made showing what the turbines would look like from the 3 closest villages (Cwmllynfell, Tai?rgwaith and Brynamman);
? 8 coach trips to a nearby wind farm involved 265 people;
? AAT visited the 7 farms closest to the proposed site;
? the 60 identified community groups (from the audit in stage I) were sent information and updates on the projects activities throughout the year and all groups were offered to have a presentation ? 13 of which took up the offer, and one presentation was made at the AAT offices and attended by 40 people which included representatives of 17 groups;
? seven public meetings were held in community halls;
? eight people were trained to carry out 38 in-depth interviews (in Welsh or English);
? nine small group discussions were facilitated for a range of people;
? eleven events and conferences were attended;
? five open days were held in the closest villages;
? during 3 open days a range of participatory methods were used that included mapping, timelines, Venn diagrams, SWOT analysis, and brainstorming.

Decision making process - how was the public involved
From the creation of proposals the public were consulted and invited to be involved in the project through the Participatory Assessment Method. In addition the project was created by local people and the Awel Aman Tawe project, which is staffed by members from the local community, trained a number of locals in order that they could assist with the consultation through interviews and questionnaires.

Decision making process - was there public discussion over the project
The consultation period lasted for 10 months, throughout stages one and two of five stages of the project.

Welche Tools wurden verwendet, um Nachhaltigkeit zu beurteilen?

For the Awel Aman Tawe Project as a whole:
Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA)

For the wind farm proposal:
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

For the wind farm proposal:
Participatory Assessment Process (PAP)

Weiterführende Informationen (nur auf Englisch):

Für den vollständigen Bericht hier klicken (pdf)