Opinion of tools
Name of the case study
Name of tool
Opinion of tool - argumentation for choosing the tool
The water saving campaign was run by the Copenhagen Water, and the the data on water consumption were accessible, and made sense as an indicator. There was no knowledge of other tools. openhagen Water have been interested in experiences from other municipalities on how to achieve water savings, but they have found no similar experiences or tools.
Opinion of tool - barriers for the tool implementation
Another problem is that relatively few households in Copenhagen have individual water meters, and therefore have no knowledge about their water consumption. For this reason, installation of water meters is being promoted. Another initiative is to develop a tool to assess the water consumption of a household, based on the consumers own information on water habits. This tool will enable consumers without water meters to get an idea about his or her water consumption, and compare it to the average consumption in the municipality, or the goals for the future consumption.
Opinion of tool - assessment by tool users
These goals were decided in relation to, what was considered as “realistic” and “politically acceptable”, and not based on considerations on sustainability, e.g. what was necessary to maintain the state of the nature in the water catchment areas. In 2003, the average water consumption was 127 l/p/d, the same as for 2001.
In terms of a general over view of the tool, the end-users express a need for evaluations, and means to prioritise different efforts for a more sustainable water management. This includes a prioritisation between different water saving methods and initiatives, and prioritisation between water savings and other efforts for protection of the groundwater. At the moment, there is little overview over the costs and effects of different possible initiatives, and therefore it is difficult to prioritise between the different initiatives.
In the future, the indicator on water consumption will still be used as an important measure for sustainable water management in Copenhagen. Since the merge of Copenhagen Water and Copenhagen Energy, the liberalisation of the energy market in Denmark has had considerably influence on the efforts for water reductions; budgets have been reduced, and the number of people employed on water savings has been reduced to 1½. Organisationally, the water saving unit has become an independent unit in Copenhagen Energy, selling its services to CE. The main focus is implementing individual water meters in households. At the moment, only about 8000 households have individual water meters (out of app. 240.000 households in Copenhagen). By supporting each household by 1.000 DKr (app. 150€) for installing water meters, Copenhagen Energy hopes to increase this number. For those who have individual meters, the average consumption is 108 l/p/d, indication that individual meters has an effect, and that the goal on 110 l/p/d is not unrealistic.
Using this indicator is evidently an advantage. It is also being used on a local scale to monitor local initiatives and policies for water savings.
Opinion of tool - reviewer\'s assessment
Such indicators would enable monitoring the actions of other relevant actors in relation to sustainable water management, and turn more attention to this.
What tools were used to assess sustainability?
Indicators on water consumption