Water and Sewage
Green Blue
Buildings & land use
Introduction Important issues Indicators + benchmarks Cross sector links References


EC (2000a) The Urban Audit, Towards the Benchmarking of Quality of Life in 58 European Cities,
EC (2000b) European Landscape Convention, Florence, Italy
EC, EUROSTAT (1999) Towards Environmental Pressure Indicators for the EU: indicator definition.
EC (1998) Sustainable Urban Development in the European Union: A Framework for Action. (COM (98)605),
EC (1990) Green Paper on the Urban Environment: communication from the Commission to the Council and Parliament, COM (90) 218.
EEA (2005) Environmental policy integration in Europe: Administrative Culture and Practices, Technical report No 5/2005, Copenhagen
EEA (2002) Towards an Urban Atlas: Assessment of Spatial Data of 25 European Cities and Urban Areas. Environmental issues report No. 30, Copenhagen.
EUROPEAN Conference on Sustainable Cities & Towns (1994), Aalborg Charter, Aalborg, Denmark
EUROPEAN Sustainable Cities (2003) European Common Indicators - Towards a local sustainability profile, technical report.
HERZELE, A. T. Wiedemann (2003). A monitoring tool for the provision of accessible and attractive urban green spaces. In Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 63, pp. 109-126.
THOREN, K. H. (2000), The Green Poster, A method to evaluate the sustainability of urban green structure. Environmental Impact Assessment Review vol.20, 359–371, Elsevier.
NÆSS, P. (2001). Urban planning and sustainable development. In European Studies, vol. 9, No.4, pp.503-524
ODPM (2002), Improving Urban Parks, Play Areas and Green Spaces, DTLR, UK.
STÅHLE, A. (2002). Urban Planning for a Quality Dense Green Structure: Stockholm Sociotop Map and Park Programme. Paper to the COST C 11 "Green structures and urban planning" 6th Management Committee Meeting and Working Group Meetings 6/10 - 8/10 2002 in Milan, Italy.
WOLCH, J., J. Wilson, J. Fehrenbach, (2002) Parks and Park Funding in Los Angeles: an Equity Mapping Analysis. USC Centre for Sustainable Cities, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
UNEP, CBD (1992) Convention on Biodiversity, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Research projects and organizations in the field of urban green space development

Center for Green Space Design -
COST C11 -
EC, FP5, GREENCLUSTER -, clustering five research projects on green space in urban areas:
• BUGS -
• URGE -
GreenSpace -
Project for Public Spaces -
Sustainable Open Space -